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How A Rodent Is Dosed and Sampled Is Equally Important to How Samples Are Analyzed: Automated Dosing, Sampling and LC/MSMS With Ion Traps and Triple Quads (1,177k)
Yongxin Zhu, Candice B. Kissinger , Peter T. Kissinger and Norbert Bromet
The preclinical bioanalytical process with animal models begins with dosing and then sampling biological fluids and tissue. How an animal is housed, dosed and then sampled is equally important to how the samples are analyzed. Animal science and bioanalytical chemistry are very different professions, but integrating them is essential to the process of searching for new medicines to improve human health. The goal is to understand oral absorption kinetics, distribution, metabolism, excretion, blood-brain barrier penetration, drug-drug interactions, and the influences on biomarkers, hematology, electrophysiology, cardiology, blood pressure and behavior. In a typical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, 8-12 samples are collected over a time span of 10-24 h. Urine, feces, bile, ultrafiltrates and microdialysates can augment the information available from whole blood. In the last decade, LC/MSMS augmented by automation of sample preparation has saved labor and improved precision for smaller volume/lower concentration samples. To improve both quality and throughput, while providing for reduced numbers of animals and enhanced animal comfort, we have implemented a robotic system (automated blood sampling system) that can accomplish most of the above goals. This review is a progress report on this evolving research program for automated blood and microdialysis sampling, which demonstrates that good preclinical bioanalytical chemistry requires proper sampling fromlow-stress laboratory animals.
Accu-Chek® Advantage: Electrochemistry for Diabetes Management (121k)
Brian Hill, Ph.D.
This article discusses the electrochemical principles behind the Accu-Chek glucose meter.
New Substrate for Raman, Infrared, and Mass Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis (256k)
Katia Rothhaar, Ph.D., Dongmao Zhang, Yong Xie and Dor Ben-Amotz
This article discusses a novel sample deposition method and a new substrate for microanalysis, together with some applications for protein and pharmaceutical analysis.
Decreases in the serotonin content of a pair of identified neurones can explain the effects of p-chlorophenylalanine on the feeding behaviour of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. (289k)
Bhavik Anil Patel, Martin Arundell, Kim H. Parker, Danny O’Hare and Mark S.Yeoman
An optimised LCEC technique has been used to measure serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Detection limits for serotonin and 5-HIAA were 11.9 ng/ml and 119 ng/ml, respectively, allowing detection of these two analytes in a single neurone. pCPA (150 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of both serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CNS, a result that was confirmed by standard immunohistochemical techniques. These decreases were associated with specific changes in the feeding behaviour of the animal. The role of serotonin in regulating feeding in Lymnaea is discussed.
Special Interest (81k)
In the Literature (166k)